Silverman, Alexandra L., BA1; Herzog, Alfred A, MD2; Silverman, David I, MD3
Anxiety, depression and stress are exceedingly common in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). They increase the risk of cardiac events and are associated with much worse outcomes. A causal relationships exists between anxiety/depression and adverse cardiac events such as acute myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. Various treatments, including psychological therapies and pharmacotherapy, can used to treat patients with these disorders. This review discusses the epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment options for patients with CVD who suffer from these conditions, and argues that they should be treated as concomitant risk factors for CVD.
From the 1Behavioral Health Partial Hospital Program, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA
2Department of Psychiatry, Hartford Hospital, Hartford CT
3Heart and Vascular Institute, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Ct.
Sources of funding: none
No conflicts of interest to disclose
Correspondence to: David I. Silverman, MD, Harford Hospital , 80 Seymour St., Hartford, CT 06102, Phone 860 972-2976, Fax: 860 545-5631, Email: David.Silverman@hhchealth.org
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